Roman Emperor Aurelian: Restorer of the World | White, John F. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Übersetzung im Kontext von „roman emperor“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: holy roman emperor. Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was the final famous Stoic philosopher of the ancient world. The Meditations, his personal journal, survives to this day as one.
The Emperor's New Clothes. Power Dressing in the Roman Empire from Augustus to HonoriusBoys Roman Emperor Julius Caesar Greek Toga King Kids Costume. This costume is made of high-quality material. This is going to love this Roman Emperor. Der römische Kaiser war während der Kaiserzeit der Herrscher des Römischen Reiches. Die Kaiser verwendeten im Laufe der Geschichte verschiedene Titel. Wenn ein bestimmter Römer auf Englisch als "Kaiser" beschrieben wird, spiegelt dies oft seine. The term Kaiserpfalz is a 19th-century appellation that overlooks the fact that the king did not bear the title of the Roman Emperor (granted by the Pope) until after his imperial coronation.
Roman Emperor Navigation menu VideoAugustus: Rome’s Greatest Emperor Pertinax Didius Julianus Severus Caracalla Geta Macrinus Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander. Domitian served as Roman emperor from 81 to The younger brother of Titus and the son of Vespasian, Domitian stood as the last member of the Flavian dynasty in line for the throne and inherited it after his brother suffered a fatal illness while traveling. Some believe that Domitian may have had a hand in his brother's death. List of Roman Emperors On these pages, you will find the names, regnal dates, and portraits of the emperors of the Roman Empire, with links to more information. 1st century. Augustus, first Roman emperor, following the republic, which had been finally destroyed by the dictatorship of Julius Caesar,. The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar.
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Episode "DNR" ausgeht, sodass Roman Emperor so postkartenschn ausschaut! - Jetzt kostenlos testenOn these Frida 2002, you will find the names, regnal dates, and portraits of the emperors of the Roman Empire, with links to more information. SPIEGEL Bestseller Welche Titel haben es in die SPIEGEL-Bestseller-Liste für Belletristik und Sachbuch geschafft? So bezeichnete Augustus sich selbst als Divi f ilius : Sohn des vergöttlichten Caesars. In particular it will focus on the Kino Podcast of ""good"" Bad Moms German Stream.
Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus. Proclaimed emperor jointly with Balbinus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus.
Tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard . Balbinus Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus. Proclaimed emperor jointly with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus.
Gordian III Marcus Antonius Gordianus. Grandson of Gordian I, appointed as heir by Pupienus and Balbinus, upon whose deaths he succeeded as emperor.
February aged 19 Died during campaign against Persia , possibly in a murder plot instigated by his successor, Philip the Arab . Philip the Arab Marcus Julius Philippus.
February — c. September 5 years and 7 months. Praetorian prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death.
Killed at the Battle of Verona against Decius. Philip II Marcus Julius Severus Philippus. Murdered by the Praetorian Guard .
Decius Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius. Proclaimed emperor by the troops in Moesia , then defeated Philip the Arab in battle.
Herennius Etruscus Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius. Killed in battle against the Goths alongside his father, Decius .
Hostilian Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus. Son and heir of Decius, accepted as emperor by Trebonianus Gallus. Probably died of the plague, possibly killed by Trebonianus Gallus .
Trebonianus Gallus Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus. August Murdered by his own troops, in favour of Aemilian .
Volusianus Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus. August Murdered by the soldiers, alongside his father .
Aemilian Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus. Commander of the army in Moesia , proclaimed emperor by the soldiers after defeating barbarians, and in opposition to Gallus.
Murdered by his own troops, in favor of Valerian . Valerian Publius Licinius Valerianus. Army commander in Raetia and Noricum , proclaimed emperor by the legions in opposition to Aemilian.
Captured at Edessa by the Persian king Shapur I , died in captivity . Gallienus Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus.
Saloninus Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus. Murdered in by the soldiers of Postumus . Claudius Gothicus Marcus Aurelius Claudius. September — c.
April  1 year and c. Victorious general at Battle of Naissus , seized power after Gallienus's death. Quintillus Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus.
Committed suicide or killed at the behest of Aurelian . Aurelian Lucius Domitius Aurelianus. May — c.
October 5 years and c. Supreme commander of the Roman cavalry, proclaimed emperor by Danube legions after Claudius's death, in opposition to Quintillus.
October aged 61 Murdered by the troops . Tacitus Marcus Claudius Tacitus. Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian.
Died of an illness or killed by his own troops . Florianus Marcus Annius Florianus. Likely half-brother of Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by the troops after Tacitus's death.
Murdered by his own troops, in favour of Probus . Probus Marcus Aurelius Probus. June — c. September 6 years and c.
Proclaimed emperor by eastern legions, in opposition to Florianus. Carus Marcus Aurelius Carus. Died during a campaign against Persia , likely of illness, or possibly killed by lightning .
Carinus Marcus Aurelius Carinus. Probably died in battle against Diocletian, likely betrayed by his men . Numerian Marcus Aurelius Numerianus.
Died during army march to Europe, probably of disease, possibly assassinated . Diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus.
Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian , and in opposition to Carinus . Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus.
Appointed Caesar in by Diocletian, and raised to rank of Augustus in Galerius Galerius Valerius Maximianus.
Appointed Caesar in by Diocletian, upon whose abdication he succeeded as Augustus. Died in May , of natural causes . Constantius I Flavius Valerius Constantius.
Appointed Caesar to Maximian in , upon whose abdication he succeeded as Augustus. Constantine I Flavius Valerius Constantinus.
Son of Constantius I, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops. Accepted as Caesar by Galerius in , promoted to Augustus in by Maximian, refused demotion to Caesar in Severus Flavius Valerius Severus.
Appointed Caesar in , raised to rank of Augustus by Galerius upon Constantius I's death. Murdered or forced to commit suicide on 16 September after surrendering to Maximian and Maxentius .
Maxentius Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius. Son of Maximian, seized power after being initially passed over in the succession.
Licinius Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Appointed emperor by Galerius as replacement to Severus, in opposition to Maxentius.
Defeated Maximinus Daia in a civil war to become sole emperor of the East in Maximinus Daia Galerius Valerius Maximinus. Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in ; succeeded as Augustus shared with Licinius I in Valerius Valens Aurelius Valerius Valens.
Appointed western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, being executed within weeks. Martinian Sextus Marcius Martinianus.
Constantine II Flavius Claudius Constantinus. Son and heir of Constantine I, whom he succeeded jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans.
Constantius II Flavius Julius Constantius. Son and heir of Constantine I, whom he succeeded jointly with his brothers Constantine II and Constans.
Constans Flavius Julius Constans. Son and heir of Constantine I, whom he succeeded jointly with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II. General of Constans, proclaimed emperor against Magnentius and temporarily recognized by Constantius II.
Julian "the Apostate" Flavius Claudius Julianus. Appointed Caesar in by his cousin Constantius II. Proclaimed Augustus by his troops in early Sole emperor after the death of Constantius.
Mortally wounded in battle against Persia. Vitellius banned astrologers from Rome. Vespasian , military leader under Claudius. Vespasian began the building of the Colosseum.
Titus , Vespasian's son. Titus finished building the Colosseum. Domitian , Titus's younger brother. Domitian conquered southern Scotland , making it temporarily part of the Roman Empire.
Nerva , friend of Nero, who had saved Nero's life. Under Trajan, the Roman Empire was at its largest size ever. Hadrian - Hadrian built Hadrian's Wall in Britain, to prevent the Picts from invading Roman Britain.
Hadrian died in AD. Galerius east, — ce. Severus west, — ce. Constantine I — ce ; reunified the empire. Galerius Valerius Maximinus — ce.
Licinius — ce. Constantine II — ce. Constantius II — ce. Constans I — ce. Gallus Caesar — ce. Julian — ce.
Jovian — ce. Valentinian I west, — ce. Valens east, — ce. Gratian west, — ce ; coemperor with Valentinian I.
Valentinian II — ce ; crowned as child. Theodosius I east, — ce ; east and west, — ce. Arcadius east, — ce , coemperor; — ce , sole emperor.
Magnus Maximus west, — ce. Honorius west, — ce , coemperor; — ce , sole emperor. Theodosius II east, — ce. Constantius III west, ce , coemperor.
Valentinian III west, — ce. Marcian east, — ce. Petronius Maximus west, March 17—May 31, ce. Avitus west, — ce.
Majorian west, — ce. Anthemius west, — ce. In modern terms these early emperors would tend to be identified as chiefs of state. The office of princeps senatus , however, was not a magistracy and did not entail imperium.
At some points in the Empire's history, the emperor's power was nominal; powerful praetorian prefects , masters of the soldiers and on a few occasions, other members of the Imperial household including Imperial mothers and grandmothers were the true source of power.
The title imperator dates back to the Roman Republic , when a victorious commander could be hailed as imperator in the field by his troops.
The Senate could then award or withhold the extraordinary honour of a triumph ; the triumphal commander retained the title until the end of his magistracy.
In 38 BC Agrippa refused a triumph for his victories under Octavian's command, and this precedent established the rule that the princeps should assume both the salutation and title of imperator.
It seems that from then on Octavian later the first emperor Augustus used imperator as a first name praenomen : Imperator Caesar not Caesar imperator.
From this the title came to denote the supreme power and was commonly used in that sense. Otho was the first to imitate Augustus, but only with Vespasian did imperator emperor become the official title by which the ruler of the Roman Empire was known.
The word princeps plural principes , meaning "first", was a republican term used to denote the leading citizen s of the state.
It was a purely honorific title with no attached duties or powers. It was the title most preferred by Augustus as its use implies only primacy, as opposed to another of his titles, imperator , which implies dominance.
In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus "lord" ;  later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN.
Pius Felix Invictus Augustus : NN representing the individual's personal name; Pius Felix meaning "Pious and Blest"; and Invictus meaning "undefeated".
The use of princeps and dominus broadly symbolise the differences in the empire's government, giving rise to the era designations " Principate " and " Dominate ".
As a result, historians distinguish the Augustan period as the principate and the period from Diocletian to the 7th-century reforms of Emperor Heraclius as the dominate from the Latin for "lord".
Reaching back to the oldest traditions of job-sharing in the republic, however, Diocletian established at the top of this new structure the Tetrarchy "rule of four" in an attempt to provide for smoother succession and greater continuity of government.
Under the Tetrarchy, Diocletian set in place a system of co-emperors, styled "Augustus", and junior emperors, styled "Caesar". When a co-emperor retired as Diocletian and his co-emperor Maximian did in or died, a junior "Caesar" would succeed him and the co-emperors would appoint new Caesars as needed.
The four members of the Imperial college as historians call the arrangement shared military and administrative challenges by each being assigned specific geographic areas of the empire.
From this innovation, often but not consistently repeated over the next years, comes the notion of an east—west partition of the empire that became popular with historians long after the practice had stopped.
The two halves of empire, while often run as de facto separate entities day-to-day, were always considered and seen, legally and politically, as separate administrative divisions of a single, insoluble imperium by the Romans of the time.
When emperor Theodosius I died, his sons Arcadius and Honorius , already proclaimed augusti , succeeded him.
The Roman Empire survived in the east until , but the marginalization of the former heartland of Italy to the empire [ clarification needed ] had a profound cultural impact on the empire and the position of emperor.
In , the official language was changed from Latin to Greek. But many in Western Europe began to refer to the political entity as the "Greek Empire".
The evolution of the church in the no-longer imperial city of Rome and the church in the now supreme Constantinople began to follow divergent paths, culminating in the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox faiths.
The position of emperor was increasingly influenced by Near Eastern concepts of kingship. Starting with Emperor Heraclius, Roman emperors styled themselves "King of Kings" from the imperial Persian Shahanshah from and "Basileus" from the title used by Alexander the Great from The later period of the empire is today called the Byzantine Empire as a matter of scholarly convention.
Although these are the most common offices, titles, and positions, not all Roman emperors used them, nor were all of them used at the same time in history.
The consular and censorial offices especially were not an integral part of the Imperial dignity, and were usually held by persons other than the reigning emperor.
When Augustus established the Princeps , he turned down supreme authority in exchange for a collection of various powers and offices, which in itself was a demonstration of his auctoritas "authority".
As holding princeps senatus , the emperor declared the opening and closure of each Senate session, declared the Senate's agenda, imposed rules and regulation for the Senate to follow, and met with foreign ambassadors in the name of the Senate.
Being pontifex maximus made the emperor the chief administrator of religious affairs, granting him the power to conduct all religious ceremonies, consecrate temples, control the Roman calendar adding or removing days as needed , appoint the vestal virgins and some flamens , lead the Collegium Pontificum , and summarize the dogma of the Roman religion.
While these powers granted the emperor a great deal of personal pride and influence, they did not include legal authority. In 23 BC, Augustus gave the emperorship its legal power.
The first was Tribunicia Potestas , or the powers of the tribune of the plebs without actually holding the office which would have been impossible, since a tribune was by definition a plebeian , whereas Augustus, although born into a plebeian family, had become a patrician when he was adopted into the gens Julia.
This endowed the emperor with inviolability sacrosanctity of his person, and the ability to pardon any civilian for any act, criminal or otherwise.
By holding the powers of the tribune, the emperor could prosecute anyone who interfered with the performance of his duties. The emperor's tribuneship granted him the right to convene the Senate at his will and lay proposals before it, as well as the ability to veto any act or proposal by any magistrate, including the actual tribune of the plebeians.
Also, as holder of the tribune's power, the emperor would convoke the Council of the People , lay legislation before it, and served as the council's president.
But his tribuneship only granted him power within Rome itself. He would need another power to veto the act of governors and that of the consuls while in the provinces.
To solve this problem, Augustus managed to have the emperor be given the right to hold two types of imperium. The first being consular imperium while he was in Rome, and imperium maius outside of Rome.
While inside the walls of Rome, the reigning consuls and the emperor held equal authority, each being able to veto each other's proposals and acts, with the emperor holding all of the consul's powers.
But outside of Rome, the emperor outranked the consuls and could veto them without the same effects on himself.
Imperium Maius also granted the emperor authority over all the provincial governors , making him the ultimate authority in provincial matters and gave him the supreme command of all of Rome's legions.
With Imperium Maius, the emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate.
Also, Imperium Maius granted the emperor the right to veto the governors of the provinces and even the reigning consuls while in the provinces.
The nature of the imperial office and the Principate was established under Julius Caesar's heir and posthumously adopted son, Augustus, and his own heirs, the descendants of his wife Livia from her first marriage to a scion of the distinguished Claudian clan.
This Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end when the Emperor Nero — a great-great-grandson of Augustus through his daughter and of Livia through her son — was deposed in Nero was followed by a succession of usurpers throughout 69, commonly called the " Year of the Four Emperors ".
The last of these, Vespasian , established his own Flavian dynasty. Nerva , who replaced the last Flavian emperor, Vespasian's son Domitian , in 96, was elderly and childless, and chose therefore to adopt an heir, Trajan , from outside his family.
When Trajan acceded to the purple he chose to follow his predecessor's example, adopting Hadrian as his own heir, and the practice then became the customary manner of imperial succession for the next century, producing the " Five Good Emperors " and the Empire's period of greatest stability.
The last of the Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius , chose his natural son Commodus as his successor rather than adopting an heir. A brief period of instability quickly gave way to Septimius Severus , who established the Severan dynasty which, except for an interruption in — when Macrinus was emperor, held the purple until The accession of Maximinus Thrax marks both the close and the opening of an era.
It was one of the last attempts by the increasingly impotent Roman Senate to influence the succession. Yet it was the second time that a man had achieved the purple while owing his advancement purely to his military career; both Vespasian and Septimius Severus had come from noble or middle-class families, while Thrax was born a commoner.
He never visited the city of Rome during his reign ,  which marks the beginning of a series of " barracks emperors " who came from the army.
Between and over a dozen emperors achieved the purple, but only Valerian and Carus managed to secure their own sons' succession to the throne; both dynasties died out within two generations.
The accession on 20 November , of Diocletian , the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Carus' and Numerian's household cavalry protectores domestici , marked major innovations in Rome's government and constitutional theory.
Diocletian, a traditionalist and religious conservative, attempted to secure efficient, stable government and a peaceful succession with the establishment of the Tetrarchy.
The empire was divided into East and West, each ruled by an Augustus assisted by a Caesar as emperor-in-waiting.
These divisions were further subdivided into new or reformed provinces, administered by a complex, hierarchic bureaucracy of unprecedented size and scope.
Diocletian's own court was based at Nicomedia. His co-Augustus, Maximian, was based at Mediolanum modern Milan.
Their courts were peripatetic, and Imperial progressions through the provinces made much use of the impressive, theatrical adventus , or "Imperial arrival" ceremony, which employed an elaborate choreography of etiquette to emphasise the emperor's elevation above other mortals.
Hyperinflation of imperial honours and titles served to distinguish the Augusti from their Caesares , and Diocletian, as senior Augustus , from his colleague Maximian.
The senior Augustus in particular was made a separate and unique being, accessible only through those closest to him.
The overall unity of the Empire still required the highest investiture of power and status in one man. The Tetrarchy ultimately degenerated into civil war, but the eventual victor, Constantine the Great , restored Diocletian's division of Empire into East and West.See also: Macedonian dynasty and Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty. For other Alf Titelmelodie claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers. Maximinus Thrax Gordian I Gordian II Your Name Deutschland Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab Kölner Lichter 2021 II Decius Herennius Etruscus Roman Emperor Trebonianus Gallus Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus Saloninus Claudius Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Ulpia Severina Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus Numerian Gallic emperors Postumus Laelianus Marius Victorinus Domitianus II Tetricus I with Tetricus II as caesar. He outlawed paganism and made Christianity the Empire's official religion. Valentinian I west, — ce. Roman emperors by time period. Vespasian Roman Emperor Vespasianus Augustus . Cities and towns Climate Sahan Gökbakar Dictators Distinguished women Dynasties Emperors Generals Sky Receiver Fernbedienung Code Geographers Institutions Laws Legacy Legions Magistri equitum Nomina Pontifices Maximi Praetors Quaestors Tribunes Roman—Iranian Merlin Die Neuen Abenteuer Serien Stream Wars and battles Civil wars and revolts Fiction Films. For example, Augustus' official name was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus. Maximinus Thrax Gordian I Gordian II Pupienus Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab Philip II Decius Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus Saloninus Rick Forrester Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Ulpia Severina Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus Numerian Gallic emperors Postumus Laelianus Marius Victorinus Domitianus II Tetricus I with Tetricus II as caesar. Appointed Caesar inraised to rank of Augustus by Galerius upon Constantius I's death. The office of princeps senatushowever, was not a magistracy and did not entail imperium.