Während des Nanking-Massakers wurden, wie die Zeugen berichten, viele Bürger und entwaffnete Gefangenen wahllos getötet. Aber der Journalist der Domei. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. In China ist erstmals mit einem nationalen Gedenktag an das Massaker japanischer Soldaten in der Stadt Nanking vor 77 Jahren erinnert.
Nanking 1937: Sie zwangen Väter, ihre Töchter zu vergewaltigenDie chinesische Hauptstadt Nanking wurde am Dezember von japanischen Truppen besetzt. Es folgte ein Massaker von größter. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. In China ist erstmals mit einem nationalen Gedenktag an das Massaker japanischer Soldaten in der Stadt Nanking vor 77 Jahren erinnert.
Massaker Von Nanking Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoMassaker von Nanking - Interview
Dazu gehörten blinder Gehorsam und eine bis an den Selbstmord reichende Opferbereitschaft. Jahrhunderts zu bestätigen schien.
Aus dieser Perspektive waren die Angehörigen der uralten Führungsmacht China allenfalls Schweine, die hinzumetzeln durchaus legitim war.
Schonung von Kriegsgefangenen oder Zivilisten wurde von Offizieren oder Unteroffizieren als Mangel an Disziplin und Kampfbereitschaft verstanden, was die Spirale der Gewalt weiter antrieb.
Nachdem die Japaner die chinesischen Stellungen vor Shanghai endlich durchbrochen hatten, löste sich Tschiangs Armee auf der Flucht weitgehend auf.
An eine erfolgreiche Verteidigung Nankings war mit ihr nicht mehr zu denken. Was auf die zurückgebliebenen Einwohner zukam, zeigten die Nachrichten vom Vormarsch der Japaner, deren Divisionen miteinander wetteiferten, welche zuerst Nanking erreichen würde.
Dörfer wurden niedergebrannt, ihre Bewohner bestialisch umgebracht. Japan hatte nicht die Haager Konventionen unterschrieben, die Kriegsgefangene unter Schutz stellten.
Ein Befehl des Tenno tat ein Übriges: Gefangene sollten nicht gemacht werden. Am Credit: see original file.
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Home News Random Article Install Wikiwand Send a suggestion Uninstall Wikiwand. The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanking Safety Zone.
Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated, the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone.
The safety zone, an area of 3. The Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate alleged plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians.
With the relocation of the capital of China and the reports of Japanese brutality, most of the civilian population fled Nanjing out of fear.
Wealthy families were the first to flee, leaving Nanjing in automobiles, followed by the evacuation of the middle class and then the poor, while only the destitute lowest class such as the ethnic Tanka boat people remained behind.
More than three quarters of the population had fled Nanjing before the Japanese arrived. Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanjing in the weeks after the fall of the city say that, over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanjing, Japanese troops engaged in mass rape , murder , torture , theft , arson , and other war crimes.
Some of these primary accounts, including the diaries of John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin , came from foreigners who opted to stay behind to protect the Chinese civilians from harm.
Other accounts include first-person testimonies of Nanjing Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists both Western and Japanese , as well as the field diaries of military personnel.
A group of foreign expatriates headed by Rabe had formed a man International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city.
The city population of Nanjing inflated drastically during the mids, as many refugees fled from the Japanese aggression in the north. Smythe , secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking , recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints with the Japanese embassy.
In , the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun and its sister newspaper, the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun , covered a contest between two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda of the Japanese 16th Division.
The two men were described as vying to be the first to kill people with a sword before the capture of Nanjing. From Jurong to Tangshan two cities in Jiangshu Province , China , Mukai had killed 89 people while Noda had killed The contest continued because neither had killed people.
By the time they had arrived at Zijin Mountain , Noda had killed people while Mukai had killed people. Both officers supposedly surpassed their goal during the heat of battle, making it impossible to determine which officer had actually won the contest.
Therefore, according to journalists Asami Kazuo and Suzuki Jiro, writing in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun of December 13, they decided to begin another contest to kill people.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20, women, including some children and the elderly, were raped during the occupation.
Young children were not exempt from these atrocities and were cut open to allow Japanese soldiers to rape them. On 19 December , the Reverend James M.
McCallum wrote in his diary: . I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. We estimate at least 1, cases a night and many by day.
In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.
On March 7, , Robert O. Wilson , a surgeon at the university hospital in the Safety Zone administrated by the United States, wrote in a letter to his family, "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about ,, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms.
The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief.
Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.
Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped.
Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8, people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied.
They bayoneted one little boy of eight who [had] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen.
I think he will live. In his diary kept during the aggression against the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army , the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe , wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities.
For 17 December: . Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall.
When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet.
I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital Last night up to 1, women and girls are said to have been raped, about girls at Ginling College …alone.
You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.
There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit incestuous acts. Iris Chang estimated that the number of Chinese women raped by Japanese soldiers ranged from 20, to 80, Chang also states that not all rape victims were women.
Some Chinese men were sodomized and forced to perform "repulsive sex acts". Following the capture of Nanjing, a massacre, which was perpetrated by the Imperial Japanese Army IJA , led to the deaths of up to 60, residents in the city, a figure difficult to precisely calculate due to the many bodies deliberately burnt, buried in mass graves, or deposited in the Yangtze River by the IJA.
Campbell, in an article published in the journal Sociological Theory , has described the Nanjing Massacre as a genocide , given the fact that residents were still slaughtered en masse during the aftermath, despite the successful and certain outcome in battle.
It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every to yards.
The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind.
The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as [was] almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.
On 10 February , Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase.
The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs.
Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her.
Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina.
The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14 [were].
They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed.
The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2—3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina.
The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother.
The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7—8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively.
The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. Shuqin Xia, who claims to be the 7- or 8-year-old girl who appears in Magee's film.
Higashinakano had claimed in his book, Thorough Review of Nanjing Massacre , that she and the girl were different persons, and that she was not a witness of the Nanjing massacre, but he was unable to prove this at trial.
Pregnant women were targeted for murder, as their stomachs were often bayoneted, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army's systematic mass killings, testified: .
The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away.
As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.
According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani, "The Army used a trumpet sound that meant 'Kill all Chinese who run away'.
Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4, to 20, However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12, victims.
The Hui people , a minority Chinese group, the majority of them Muslim , suffered as well during the massacre.
One mosque was found destroyed and others found to be "filled with dead bodies. On 5 August , the Deputy Minister of Military of Japan notified Japanese Troops in Shanghai of the army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners "Riku Shi Mitsu No.
The directive also advised staff officers to no longer to use the term Prisoner of War. Soon after the fall of the city, Japanese troops made a thorough search for Chinese soldiers and summarily arrested thousands of young Chinese men.
Many were taken to the Yangtze River , where they were machine-gunned to death. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops, the Straw String Gorge Massacre, occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December For most of the morning, Japanese soldiers tied the POWs' hands together.
At dusk, the soldiers divided POWs into four columns and opened fire. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash desperately. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual.
The majority of the bodies were dumped directly into the Yangtze River. The Japanese troops gathered 1, Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and murdered them.
The victims were blown up with landmines , then doused with petrol and set on fire. The survivors were killed with bayonets. American news correspondents F.
Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele reported seeing corpses of massacred Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanjing Yijiang gate in the north.
Grundlage für die erheblich voneinander abweichenden Opferzahlen sind die Beobachtungen japanischer Soldaten, Berichte von Reportern und chinesischen und westlichen Bewohnern Nankings während des Massakers die alle nur grobe Schätzungen liefern konnten , Aufzeichnungen über Beerdigungen bei denen nicht zwischen Chinesen und Japanern, Soldaten und Zivilisten unterschieden wurde  und unterschiedliche Ansichten darüber, welches Gebiet und welcher Zeitraum dem Ereignis zugerechnet werden sollen.
So wurden zeitgleich im 84 Kilometer entfernten Zhenjiang und im hundert Kilometer entfernten Hsuchow ebenfalls Massaker verübt, deren Opfer in die chinesischen Berechnungen mit einflossen.
Auch eine von beiden Ländern eingesetzte gemeinsame Forschungsgruppe von hochrangigen Historikern konnte sich in dieser Frage bisher nicht einigen, wobei hier letztlich die japanische Seite vermied, diesen Diskussionspunkt zu vertiefen.
Mai die Auffassung, das Massaker, das niemals vergessen werden dürfe, diene der patriotischen Erziehung der Jugend. Die Frage, warum das Massaker in der geschichtlichen Aufarbeitung lange Jahre unbeachtet blieb, wird unterschiedlich beantwortet:.
Eine im August herausgegebene Studie, durchgeführt unter Mitarbeit der Universität Tokio, fand heraus, dass die meisten Chinesen in Zusammenhang mit Japan zuerst das Nanking-Massaker nannten.
Im gleichen Monat war die Bewertung der Vorgänge in Nanking in japanischen Schulbüchern Anlass zu Protesten in China: Am 9.
In der japanischen Öffentlichkeit wurde die Debatte seit den er-Jahren heftig geführt. Anfangs bestritten Revisionisten aus dem nationalistischen Lager das Massaker und bezeichneten die Berichte darüber als chinesische Propaganda.
Auch Aufzeichnungen der japanischen Armee und Augenzeugenberichte japanischer Soldaten bewiesen zweifelsfrei, dass sich in Nanking ungeheuerliche Grausamkeiten ereignet hatten.
Diese Berichte werden in Japan inzwischen als zutreffend eingestuft. Die auflagenstarke Zeitung Asahi Shimbun hatte ein Jahr zuvor Auszüge des Buchs abgedruckt.
Die westliche Welt zeigte lange Zeit kaum Interesse. Im Buch wird auch die Geschichte von John Rabe erzählt; Chang vergleicht ihn mit Oskar Schindler.
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These examples may contain rude words based on your search. These examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. Translation of "Massaker von Nanking" in English.Die Massaker von Nanking waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. Den Protokollen der Tokioter Prozesse zufolge wurden über , anderen Schätzungen zufolge über  Zivilisten und Kriegsgefangene ermordet sowie rund Mädchen und Frauen vergewaltigt.. Find the perfect Massaker Von Nanking stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Massaker Von Nanking of the highest quality. Find professional Massaker Von Nanking videos and stock footage available for license in film, television, advertising and corporate uses. Getty Images offers exclusive rights-ready and premium royalty-free analog, HD, and 4K video of the highest quality.
Massaker Von Nanking Disney Massaker Von Nanking U. - Warum japanische Soldaten Hunderttausende Chinesen massakriertenDezember Das Tagebuch des Chiang Kai-shek war sicher dass Nanking nicht erfolgreich verteidigt werden könne. Um diese japan-freundliche Haltung zu kaputt zu Bom Bom Bubbles, verbreiteten die Kommunisten überraschend eine falsche Nachricht: die japanische Truppe sei an der Marco-Polo-Brücke vom chinesischen Militär besiegt worden, und die Chinesen wollten jetzt die autonome, antikommunistische und mit den Japanern kooperierende Regierung in Tongzhou stürzen. SAITO Yoshie zu Rate. Wenn ja, wie viele waren es? Die Massaker von Nanking waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. Die Massaker von Nanking (chinesisch 南京大屠殺 / 南京大屠杀, Pinyin Nánjīng dàtúshā; jap. 南京大虐殺 Nankin daigyakusatsu) waren Kriegsverbrechen der. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. Die chinesische Hauptstadt Nanking wurde am Dezember von japanischen Truppen besetzt. Es folgte ein Massaker von größter.
Massaker Von Nanking Soldat: Ach, Filmconfect. - Entdecken Sie Deutschlandfunk KulturBitte aktualisieren Sie die Seite oder loggen sich aus und wieder ein. General Staff Air Service Land Forces Fleet Faction Treaty Das Unbekannte. Views Read View source View history. Die japanische Regierung wurde dabei von der japanischen Armeeführung regelrecht überrumpelt, die von einem Festlandsimperium träumte und Tokio mehr als einmal vor vollendete Tatsachen stellte. The Nanjing garrison Springflut 2 set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates. On October 9,Documents of Nanjing Massacre have been listed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Suggest as cover photo Would you like to suggest this photo as the cover photo Massaker Von Nanking this article? Damit begann der Zweite Japanisch-Chinesische Krieg. Murase, Moriyasu, Watashino Jyugun Cyugoku-sensen My China FrontNippon Kikanshi Syuppan Center, revised in He and his staff realized that they could not risk the annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. Some Chinese men were sodomized and forced to perform "repulsive sex acts". Schändung Imdb Decembernewly declassified U. After the establishment of the weixin zhengfu the collaborating government inorder was gradually restored in Nanjing and atrocities by Japanese troops lessened considerably. General Tani Masuo, the man who oversaw the Nanking Massacre, was executed in March after being found guilty of war crimes by the war tribunal set up by Chiang Kai-shek. Poetically, at least in the eyes of the tribunal, Masuo’s executioner was a Chinese veteran who survived the Battle of Nanking. (text by Bonnie Hill, Pinterest). Die Massaker von Nanking (chinesisch 南京大屠殺 / 南京大屠杀, Pinyin Nánjīng dàtúshā; jap. 南京大虐殺 Nankin daigyakusatsu) waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking (bzw. Nanjing) während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. Media in category "Nanjing Massacre" The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. Play media. 年12月13日. John Heinrich Detlef Rabe (23 November – 5 January ) was a German businessman and Nazi Party member who is best known for his efforts to stop the atrocities of the Japanese army during the Nanking occupation and his work to protect and help the Chinese civilians during the massacre. Die Massaker von Nanking waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges.